Chlorine has how many protons

chlorine has how many protons

How to Find How Many Protons, Neutrons & Electrons Are in Isotopes

Chlorine is the second halogen, being a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table. Its properties are thus similar to fluorine, bromine, and iodine, and are largely intermediate between those of the first two. Chlorine has the electron configuration [Ne]3s 2 3p 5, with the seven electrons in the third and outermost shell acting as its valence. May 10,  · Copper, for example, has two isotopes, copper and copper Copper has 29 protons and a mass number of Copper has 29 protons and mass number Helium has 2 protons and almost always has a mass number of 4. Very rarely, helium forms the isotope helium-3, which still has 2 protons but has a mass number of 3.

By definition, an atom is electrically neutral i. If a species were charged, it is referred to as an ion cation for positively charged and anion for negatively charged speciesalso by definition. But this is probably not a very satisfying answer. I personally find answers based on definitions pretty bland.

Perhaps an interesting follow up question is Perhaps a common example you might be familiar with is table salt, NaCl. Before forming salt, both sodium Na and chlorine Cl are electrically neutral atoms. Then chlorine nabs an electron from a sodium because it is more energetically favorable for it to have an additional electron. Overall, NaCl is a neutral system table salt doesn't shock you when you eat it This property of electrical neutrality is also very important in the work that I do every day.

I do computational research on crystals like NaCl where we calculate energies of a variety of sorts to understand the material. This would mean figuring this out for something like 10 23 ions which is a lot. We do something a little more clever. NaCl is a crystal, which means it has a periodic i.

But this means what we model is infinitely large materials. This is okay for bulk materials, since surface effects are small. What is more worrying are those long range Coulombic forces. If we're not careful, we could end up with infinite energy!

And that would be no good. This can be solved with a clever way of adding Coulombic forces called Ewald summation and a charge neutral unit cell. But if many everyday things we are familiar with are electrically neutral, does this mean that the universe has to be electrically neutral?

It's actually still an open research question. What do you think would happen if the universe were just slightly positively charged overall? This is different from being ionized- that just means there are positively and negatively charged particles. But do these particles have to just balance each out? You can follow an interesting discussion here or a pretty recent article about how the universe could be slightly positively charged the math gets a little hairy towards the end, but there luckily is more exposition overall.

Atoms are made of 3 sub-atomic smaller than an atom particles: neutron neutralprotons positiveand electrons negative. When an atom has the same number of protons as electrons, the charges balance each other and the atom is neutral.

If the atoms aren't neutral, they are very reactive and will react with nearby atoms to form compounds or perform other reactions. Because the air around us contains many gas molecules, any charged atoms called ions will quickly react. If you want to keep free ions you need to have a really good vacuum with no other atoms around that can react with the free ions.

The opposite of free ions are bound ions, which are quite common. These are ions that have reacted with other atoms to make a stable compound, like table salt, which is made of positive sodium ions and negative chloride ions.

When an atom is electrically neutral, it means that the overall charge of the atom is zero. Atoms are made up of positively charged particles called protons and negatively charged particles called electrons as well as non-charged particles called what is going on with gmail. The charge from a proton or electron are of equal strength, therefore if an atom has an equal number of protons and electrons, it will be electrically neutral.

However, atoms are not always electrically neutral, in which case they are called ions. An ion is an atom that what can i order for delivery lost or gained electrons resulting in a positive charge from losing electrons or a negative charge from gaining electrons. They don't have to be. In an atom, there are a certain number of positively-charged protons. Positively-charged protons attract negatively-charged electrons, but the negatively-charged electrons repel one-another.

As a result, the atom can attract a number of what is the zip code for brentwood tn until it has equal numbers of protons and electrons, making the atom neutral. There are a lot of ways to make a non-neutral atom, though. For example, table salt, in water, breaks up into negatively-charged chloride ions chlorines with one extra electronand positively-charged sodium ions sodium with one too few electrons.

Why this happens has to do with quantum mechanics, which is a college-level chemistry topic. Also, high-energy light or other forms of energy can strip the electrons from atoms; this is why ultraviolet light causes sunburn, for instance, because it strips the electrons from the atoms in your skin. Well, let's think about what makes up an atom: an atoms consists of a bunch of negatively-charged electrons orbiting around a nucleus, which is made up of neutral neutrons and positively-charged protons.

In pretty much all atoms, the number of electrons and protons is the same, so the net charge of the atom in zero. But what if the atom has more or less electrons than protons? Well, then the atom becomes electrically charged what is a disco stick this is called an ion which are super important, by the way!

Ions are super important to a ton of stuff, including making sure your body works correctly! If the atom has more electrons than protons, it is negatively charged, while if it has fewer electrons than protons, it becomes positively charged. However, remember that opposite charges attract and like charges repel: so, a positively charged atom will attract electrons until it becomes neutral, whereas a negatively charged atom will repel some of its electrons until it also becomes neutral.

So only neutral atoms are stable. Atoms are neutral if they have the same number of charged protons and electrons, balancing positive and negative charges. As long as the numbers of electron and protons are the same, the what are precision weapons in halo reach will balance. Sometimes atoms are more stable though when they are not perfectly electrically neutral.

These charged what mixes well with apple cider are called "ions. This is because how to keep busy toddlers at home itself has slight charges. Atoms are electrically neutral because they have equal numbers of protons positively charged and electrons negatively charged.

If an atom gains or loses one or more electrons, it becomes an ion. If it gains one or more electrons, it now carries a net negative charge, and is thus "anionic. Why is an atom electrically neutral? Answer 1: By definition, an atom what state does ak stand for electrically neutral i.

Is the universe electrically neutral? For many instances in science, we deal with systems where charge neutrality is very important. Hope this helps! Answer 2: Atoms are made of 3 sub-atomic smaller than an atom particles: neutron neutralprotons positiveand electrons negative. Answer 3: When an atom is electrically neutral, it means that the overall charge of the atom is zero.

Answer 4: They don't have to be. Answer 5: Well, let's think about what makes up an atom: an atoms consists of a bunch of negatively-charged electrons orbiting around a nucleus, which is made up of neutral neutrons and positively-charged protons. Hope these help! Answer 6: Atoms are neutral if they have the same number of charged protons and electrons, balancing positive and negative charges.

Answer 7: Atoms are electrically neutral because they have equal numbers of protons positively charged and electrons negatively charged.

Atomic Ion Worked Chemistry Problem

As a result, the atom can attract a number of electrons until it has equal numbers of protons and electrons, making the atom neutral. There are a lot of ways to make a non-neutral atom, though. For example, table salt, in water, breaks up into negatively-charged chloride ions (chlorines with one extra electron), and positively-charged sodium. Chlorine (17 Cl) has 25 isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 28 Cl to 52 Cl and 2 isomers (34m Cl and 38m Cl). There are two stable isotopes, 35 Cl (%) and 37 Cl (%), giving chlorine a standard atomic weight of The longest-lived radioactive isotope is 36 Cl, which has a half-life of , years. All other isotopes have half-lives under 1 hour, many less than one second. Learn chemistry with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of chemistry flashcards on Quizlet.

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number The second-lightest of the halogens , it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them.

Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent : among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine.

Chlorine played an important role in the experiments conducted by medieval alchemists , which commonly involved the heating of chloride salts like ammonium chloride sal ammoniac and sodium chloride common salt , producing various chemical substances containing chlorine such as hydrogen chloride , mercury II chloride corrosive sublimate , and hydrochloric acid in the form of aqua regia. However, the nature of free chlorine gas as a separate substance was only recognised around by Jan Baptist van Helmont.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele wrote a description of chlorine gas in , supposing it to be an oxide of a new element. Because of its great reactivity, all chlorine in the Earth's crust is in the form of ionic chloride compounds, which includes table salt.

It is the second-most abundant halogen after fluorine and twenty-first most abundant chemical element in Earth's crust.

These crustal deposits are nevertheless dwarfed by the huge reserves of chloride in seawater. Elemental chlorine is commercially produced from brine by electrolysis , predominantly in the chlor-alkali process. The high oxidising potential of elemental chlorine led to the development of commercial bleaches and disinfectants , and a reagent for many processes in the chemical industry.

Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride PVC , many intermediates for the production of plastics , and other end products which do not contain the element. As a common disinfectant, elemental chlorine and chlorine-generating compounds are used more directly in swimming pools to keep them sanitary.

Elemental chlorine at high concentration is extremely dangerous, and poisonous to most living organisms. As a chemical warfare agent, chlorine was first used in World War I as a poison gas weapon. In the form of chloride ions , chlorine is necessary to all known species of life. Other types of chlorine compounds are rare in living organisms, and artificially produced chlorinated organics range from inert to toxic. In the upper atmosphere , chlorine-containing organic molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone depletion.

Small quantities of elemental chlorine are generated by oxidation of chloride to hypochlorite in neutrophils as part of an immune system response against bacteria. The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known since ancient times; archaeologists have found evidence that rock salt was used as early as BC and brine as early as BC.

Around , the authors of the Arabic writings attributed to Jabir ibn Hayyan Latin: Geber and the Persian physician and alchemist Abu Bakr al-Razi —, Latin: Rhazes were experimenting with sal ammoniac ammonium chloride , which when it was distilled together with vitriol hydrated sulfates of various metals produced hydrogen chloride. The element was first studied in detail in by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele , and he is credited with the discovery.

Scheele observed several of the properties of chlorine: the bleaching effect on litmus , the deadly effect on insects, the yellow-green color, and the smell similar to aqua regia.

Common chemical theory at that time held that an acid is a compound that contains oxygen remnants of this survive in the German and Dutch names of oxygen : sauerstoff or zuurstof , both translating into English as acid substance , so a number of chemists, including Claude Berthollet , suggested that Scheele's dephlogisticated muriatic acid air must be a combination of oxygen and the yet undiscovered element, muriaticum. In , Sir Humphry Davy tried the same experiment again, and concluded that the substance was an element, and not a compound.

Chlorine gas was first used by French chemist Claude Berthollet to bleach textiles in The resulting liquid, known as " Eau de Javel " " Javel water " , was a weak solution of sodium hypochlorite.

This process was not very efficient, and alternative production methods were sought. Scottish chemist and industrialist Charles Tennant first produced a solution of calcium hypochlorite "chlorinated lime" , then solid calcium hypochlorite bleaching powder.

Near the end of the nineteenth century, E. Smith patented a method of sodium hypochlorite production involving electrolysis of brine to produce sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas, which then mixed to form sodium hypochlorite.

Elemental chlorine solutions dissolved in chemically basic water sodium and calcium hypochlorite were first used as anti- putrefaction agents and disinfectants in the s, in France, long before the establishment of the germ theory of disease. This practice was pioneered by Antoine-Germain Labarraque , who adapted Berthollet's "Javel water" bleach and other chlorine preparations for a more complete history, see below.

Chlorine gas was first used as a weapon on April 22, , at Ypres by the German Army. Chlorine is the second halogen , being a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table. Its properties are thus similar to fluorine , bromine , and iodine , and are largely intermediate between those of the first two.

Chlorine has the electron configuration [Ne]3s 2 3p 5 , with the seven electrons in the third and outermost shell acting as its valence electrons. Like all halogens, it is thus one electron short of a full octet, and is hence a strong oxidising agent, reacting with many elements in order to complete its outer shell.

It is also a weaker oxidising agent than fluorine, but a stronger one than bromine. Conversely, the chloride ion is a weaker reducing agent than bromide, but a stronger one than fluoride. Fluorine is anomalous due to its small size. All four stable halogens experience intermolecular van der Waals forces of attraction, and their strength increases together with the number of electrons among all homonuclear diatomic halogen molecules.

As a result of the increasing molecular weight of the halogens down the group, the density and heats of fusion and vaporisation of chlorine are again intermediate between those of bromine and fluorine, although all their heats of vaporisation are fairly low leading to high volatility thanks to their diatomic molecular structure.

This trend occurs because the wavelengths of visible light absorbed by the halogens increase down the group. Like solid bromine and iodine, solid chlorine crystallises in the orthorhombic crystal system , in a layered lattice of Cl 2 molecules. This structure means that chlorine is a very poor conductor of electricity, and indeed its conductivity is so low as to be practically unmeasurable.

Chlorine has two stable isotopes, 35 Cl and 37 Cl. Both are synthesised in stars in the oxygen-burning and silicon-burning processes. The other chlorine isotopes are all radioactive, with half-lives too short to occur in nature primordially.

The most stable chlorine radioisotope is 36 Cl. The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 35 Cl is electron capture to isotopes of sulfur ; that of isotopes heavier than 37 Cl is beta decay to isotopes of argon ; and 36 Cl may decay by either mode to stable 36 S or 36 Ar. In the top meter of the lithosphere, 36 Cl is generated primarily by thermal neutron activation of 35 Cl and spallation of 39 K and 40 Ca.

In the subsurface environment, muon capture by 40 Ca becomes more important as a way to generate 36 Cl. Chlorine is intermediate in reactivity between fluorine and bromine, and is one of the most reactive elements.

Chlorine is a weaker oxidising agent than fluorine but a stronger one than bromine or iodine. However, this trend is not shown in the bond energies because fluorine is singular due to its small size, low polarisability, and inability to show hypervalence. As another difference, chlorine has a significant chemistry in positive oxidation states while fluorine does not. Chlorination often leads to higher oxidation states than bromination or iodination but lower oxidation states than fluorination.

However, the kinetics of this reaction are unfavorable, and there is also a bubble overpotential effect to consider, so that electrolysis of aqueous chloride solutions evolves chlorine gas and not oxygen gas, a fact that is very useful for the industrial production of chlorine.

The simplest chlorine compound is hydrogen chloride , HCl, a major chemical in industry as well as in the laboratory, both as a gas and dissolved in water as hydrochloric acid. It is often produced by burning hydrogen gas in chlorine gas, or as a byproduct of chlorinating hydrocarbons. Another approach is to treat sodium chloride with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce hydrochloric acid, also known as the "salt-cake" process: [40].

In the laboratory, hydrogen chloride gas may be made by drying the acid with concentrated sulfuric acid. Deuterium chloride, DCl, may be produced by reacting benzoyl chloride with heavy water D 2 O.

At room temperature, hydrogen chloride is a colourless gas, like all the hydrogen halides apart from hydrogen fluoride , since hydrogen cannot form strong hydrogen bonds to the larger electronegative chlorine atom; however, weak hydrogen bonding is present in solid crystalline hydrogen chloride at low temperatures, similar to the hydrogen fluoride structure, before disorder begins to prevail as the temperature is raised.

Beyond a mixture of HCl and H 2 O, the system separates completely into two separate liquid phases. Hydrochloric acid forms an azeotrope with boiling point Anhydrous hydrogen chloride is a poor solvent, only able to dissolve small molecular compounds such as nitrosyl chloride and phenol , or salts with very low lattice energies such as tetraalkylammonium halides. Solvolysis , ligand replacement reactions, and oxidations are well-characterised in hydrogen chloride solution: [42].

Nearly all elements in the periodic table form binary chlorides. The exceptions are decidedly in the minority and stem in each case from one of three causes: extreme inertness and reluctance to participate in chemical reactions the noble gases , with the exception of xenon in the highly unstable XeCl 2 and XeCl 4 ; extreme nuclear instability hampering chemical investigation before decay and transmutation many of the heaviest elements beyond bismuth ; and having an electronegativity higher than chlorine's oxygen and fluorine so that the resultant binary compounds are formally not chlorides but rather oxides or fluorides of chlorine.

Chlorination of metals with Cl 2 usually leads to a higher oxidation state than bromination with Br 2 when multiple oxidation states are available, such as in MoCl 5 and MoBr 3. Chlorides can be made by reaction of an element or its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with hydrochloric acid, and then dehydrated by mildly high temperatures combined with either low pressure or anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas. These methods work best when the chloride product is stable to hydrolysis; otherwise, the possibilities include high-temperature oxidative chlorination of the element with chlorine or hydrogen chloride, high-temperature chlorination of a metal oxide or other halide by chlorine, a volatile metal chloride, carbon tetrachloride , or an organic chloride.

For instance, zirconium dioxide reacts with chlorine at standard conditions to produce zirconium tetrachloride , and uranium trioxide reacts with hexachloropropene when heated under reflux to give uranium tetrachloride. The second example also involves a reduction in oxidation state , which can also be achieved by reducing a higher chloride using hydrogen or a metal as a reducing agent. This may also be achieved by thermal decomposition or disproportionation as follows: [43].

Silver chloride is very insoluble in water and is thus often used as a qualitative test for chlorine. This is very unstable and has only been characterised by its electronic band spectrum when produced in a low-pressure discharge tube.

This reaction is conducted in the oxidising solvent arsenic pentafluoride. The three fluorides of chlorine form a subset of the interhalogen compounds, all of which are diamagnetic. Chlorine monofluoride ClF is extremely thermally stable, and is sold commercially in gram steel lecture bottles.

Its properties are mostly intermediate between those of chlorine and fluorine. It will react with many metals and nonmetals from room temperature and above, fluorinating them and liberating chlorine. It will also act as a chlorofluorinating agent, adding chlorine and fluorine across a multiple bond or by oxidation: for example, it will attack carbon monoxide to form carbonyl chlorofluoride, COFCl.

It will also react exothermically and violently with compounds containing —OH and —NH groups, such as water: [45]. It is one of the most reactive known chemical compounds, reacting with many substances which in ordinary circumstances would be considered chemically inert, such as asbestos , concrete, and sand. It explodes on contact with water and most organic substances.

The list of elements it sets on fire is diverse, containing hydrogen , potassium , phosphorus , arsenic , antimony , sulfur , selenium , tellurium , bromine , iodine , and powdered molybdenum , tungsten , rhodium , iridium , and iron. An impermeable fluoride layer is formed by sodium , magnesium , aluminium , zinc , tin , and silver , which may be removed by heating. When heated, even such noble metals as palladium , platinum , and gold are attacked and even the noble gases xenon and radon do not escape fluorination.

Nickel containers are usually used due to that metal's great resistance to attack by chlorine trifluoride, stemming from the formation of an unreactive nickel fluoride layer.

Its reaction with hydrazine to form hydrogen fluoride, nitrogen, and chlorine gases was used in experimental rocket motors, but has problems largely stemming from its extreme hypergolicity resulting in ignition without any measurable delay.

Today, it is mostly used in nuclear fuel processing, to oxidise uranium to uranium hexafluoride for its enriching and to separate it from plutonium. It is a very strong fluorinating agent, although it is still not as effective as chlorine trifluoride. Only a few specific stoichiometric reactions have been characterised.

The product, chloryl fluoride , is one of the five known chlorine oxide fluorides. All five behave similarly to the chlorine fluorides, both structurally and chemically, and may act as Lewis acids or bases by gaining or losing fluoride ions respectively or as very strong oxidising and fluorinating agents.

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