6 Things You May Not Know About Santa Anna
Nov 16, · Lulled into overconfidence by his initial easy victories, Santa Anna was taken by surprise at San Jacinto, and his army was annihilated on April 21, The captured Santa Anna, fearing. Apr 02, · Santa Anna was later involved in conflicts with France and the U.S., including the secession of Texas, and was seen as responsible for much of Mexico’s turmoil. He died on June 21, Fact Check.
This surge of glory helped him gain the presidency in as a federalist and an opponent of the Roman Catholic Church ; in actuality, however, he established a centralized state. In Santa Anna marched into Texas to quell a rebellion primarily by U. During this expedition, Texas declared its independence from Mexico. His army defeated Texan forces at the Alamo and Goliad before moving eastward to the San Jacinto River what is intel bay trail, where he was defeated and captured by Gen.
Sam Houston. Santa Anna possessed a magnetic personality and real qualities of leadership, but his lack of principles, his pride, and his love of military glory and extravagance, coupled with a disregard for and incompetence in civil affairs, led Mexico into a series of disasters and himself into ill repute and tragedy. The son of a minor colonial official, Santa Anna served in the Spanish army and rose to the rank of captain. He fought on both sides of nearly every issue of the day.
In he backed Vicente Guerrero for presidentonly to help depose him later. This surge of glory helped him gain the presidency in as a Federalist and opponent of the Roman Catholic Church; in actuality, however, he established a centralized state. He remained in power untilwhen he marched into Texas to quell a rebellion by primarily U. During the course of this punitive expedition, Texas declared its independence from Mexico March 2. After signing a public treaty ending the war and a secret treaty in which he promised to do everything he could to ensure that the Mexican government adhered to the public treaty, Santa Anna was sent to Washington, D.
Andrew Jacksonhow to deal with a scorpio man in a relationship returned him to Mexico, where, in the meantime, he had been deposed from power during his absence. Inwhen the French navy seized Veracruz and demanded an indemnity for injuries to French citizens in Mexico, Santa Anna led forces to Veracruz, only to shoot at the ships as they departed.
He lost a leg in the skirmish. He gained enough prestige from this event to act as dictator from March to Julywhile the president was away. Two years later he led a revolt and seized power, which he held until he was driven into exile in James K. Polkwho arranged for a ship to take him to Mexico for the purpose of working for peace. Santa Anna took charge of the Mexican forces upon his return; but instead of acting for peace, he led his men against the United States until he was routed by U.
Winfield Scott. Santa Anna again retired, moving to Jamaica in and to New Granada in Ten years later he sought U.
Both proposals were refused. Two years before he died, poor and blind, Santa Anna was allowed to return to his country. Videos Images. Additional Info. More About Contributors Article History. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
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French defeated in Spain, ending the Peninsular War
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, in full Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Perez de Lebron, (born February 21, , Jalapa, Mexico—died June 21, , Mexico City), Mexican army officer and statesman who was the storm centre of Mexico’s politics during such events as the Texas Revolution (–36) and the Mexican-American War (–48). Apr 22, · The Surrender of Santa Anna. Texas State Preservation Board, Capitol Historical Artifact Collection, Austin. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna fell prisoner to the Texans Author: The Alamo.
His influence on post-independence Mexican politics and government in the first half of the nineteenth century is such that historians of Mexico often refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna". Santa Anna agreed with important points in the Monroe Doctrine whereby European powers would not use Dons, Lords, and Governors as absentee landlords of their conquered lands in the Americas.
He disagreed with the U. S on slavery ; but he did not agree to allow Africans into his territory as freed slaves. He carried out vicious attacks against Native Mexican American tribes. Santa Anna's military and political career featured a series of reversals. He at first opposed Mexican independence from Spain , but then fought in support of it.
He backed the monarchy of First Mexican Empire , then revolted against the emperor. He "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history". His name plays a major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his. Santa Anna, an enigmatic, patriotic, and controversial figure, wielded great power in Mexico during the turbulent 40 years of his political career.
He led as general at crucial points and served 11 non-consecutive presidential terms over a period of 22 years. Perceived as a hero by his troops, Santa Anna sought glory for himself and for his army and independence for Mexico. He repeatedly rebuilt his reputation after major losses. Yet historians and many [ quantify ] Mexicans rank him as one of "those who failed the nation". His leadership in the Mexican-American War and his willingness to fight to the bitter end prolonged the war: "[ Overthrown by the liberal Revolution of Ayutla in , he lived most of his later years in exile.
He was from a respected Spanish family. The family belonged to the racially elite criollo group of American-born Spaniards, although the family was not wealthy but rather middle-class. The men held second-rank royal and clerical positions.
The family prospered in Veracruz, where the merchant class dominated politics. Since the late 18th-century Bourbon Reforms , the crown had favored peninsular-born Spaniards over American-born, so that young Santa Anna's family was affected by the growing disgruntlement of creoles whose upward mobility was thwarted.
His mother favored her son's choice of a military career over his father's choice for him, supporting his desire to join the royal army, rather than be a shopkeeper. His mother's friendly relationship with the intendant governor of Veracruz secured Santa Anna's military appointment although he was underage. His parents' marriage produced seven children, four sisters and two brothers, and Santa Anna was close to his sister Francisca and brother Manuel, who also joined the royal army.
Santa Anna's origins on the Gulf Coast of Mexico had important ramifications for his military career, since he had immunity from yellow fever , endemic to the region. The port of Veracruz and environs were known to be unhealthy for those not native to the region   so that Santa Anna had a personal strategic advantage against military forces from elsewhere. Being a military officer in a time of war was a way that a provincial, middle-class man could vault from obscurity to a position of leadership.
Santa Anna distinguished himself in battle, a path that led him to a national political career. His provincial origins made him uncomfortable in the halls of power in Mexico City dominated by cliques of elite men, so his aversion to the capital and frequent retreats to his base in Veracruz are understandable.
Over his career, he was a populist caudillo , a strongman wielding both military and political power, similar to others who emerged in the wake of Spanish American wars of independence. Santa Anna's early military career fighting the insurgency for independence and then joining the insurgency against the Spanish crown presaged his many changes of position in his lifetime. Although some creole elites had chafed as their upward mobility had been thwarted by crown policies favoring peninsular-born Spaniards, the Hidalgo Revolt saw most creoles favoring continued crown rule.
In particular, the Santa Anna family "saw themselves as aligned to the peninsular elite, whom they served, and were in turn recognized as belonging," . The Mexican War of Independence lasted until , and Santa Anna, like most creole military officers, fought for the crown against the mixed-raced insurgents for independence.
He was promoted quickly; he became a second lieutenant in February and first lieutenant before the end of that year. During the initial rebellion, the young officer witnessed Arredondo's fierce counter-insurgency policy of mass executions. The early fighting against the insurgent massed forces gave way to guerrilla warfare and a military stalemate. Iturbide rewarded Santa Anna with the command of the vital port of Veracruz, the gateway from the Gulf of Mexico to the rest of the nation and site of the customs house.
However, Iturbide subsequently removed Santa Anna from the post, prompting Santa Anna to rise in rebellion in December against Iturbide. Santa Anna already had significant power in his home region of Veracruz, and "he was well along the path to becoming the regional caudillo. He also promised to support free trade with Spain, an important principle for his home region of Veracruz. Although Santa Anna's initial rebellion was important, Iturbide had loyal military men who were able to hold their own against the rebels in Veracruz.
The commander of imperial forces in Veracruz, who had fought against the rebels, changed sides and joined the rebels. The new coalition proclaimed the Plan of Casa Mata , which called for the end of the monarchy, restoration of the Constituent Congress, and creation of a republic and a federal system.
Santa Anna was no longer the main player in the movement against Iturbide and the creation of new political arrangements. Santa Anna pledged his military forces to the protection of these key areas. A thousand Mexicans were already on ships to sail to Cuba when word came that the Spanish were reinforcing their colony, so the invasion was called off.
Former insurgent general Guadalupe Victoria , a liberal federalist, became the first president of the Mexican republic in , following the creation of the Federalist Mexican Constitution of He came to the presidency with little factional conflict, and he served out his entire four-year term. However, the election of was quite different, with considerable political conflict in which Santa Anna became involved.
Even before the election, there was unrest in Mexico, with some conservatives affiliated with the Scottish Rite Masons plotting rebellion. In his home state of Veracruz, the governor had thrown his support to the rebels, and in the aftermath of the rebellion's failure, Santa Anna as vice-governor stepped into the governorship.
In , Santa Anna supported the hero of the insurgency, Vicente Guerrero , who was a candidate for the presidency. Another important liberal, Lorenzo de Zavala , also supported Guerrero. Even before all the votes had been counted in September , Santa Anna rebelled against the election results in support of Guerrero. Santa Anna issued a plan at Perote that called for the nullification of the election results, as well for a new law expelling Spanish nationals from Mexico, believed to be in league with Mexican conservatives.
Zavala brought the fighting into the capital, with his supporters seizing an armory, the Acordada. This cleared the way for Guerrero to become president of Mexico. In , Santa Anna made his mark in the early republic by leading forces that defeated a Spanish invasion to reconquer Mexico.
Spain made a final attempt to retake Mexico, invading Tampico with a force of 2, soldiers. Santa Anna marched against the Barradas Expedition with a much smaller force and defeated the Spaniards, many of whom were suffering from yellow fever. The defeat of the Spanish army not only increased Santa Anna's popularity but also consolidated the independence of the new Mexican republic.
Santa Anna was declared a hero. In a December coup, Vice-President Anastasio Bustamante , a conservative, rebelled against President Guerrero, who left the capital to lead a rebellion in southern Mexico.
The capture of Guerrero and his summary trial and execution in was a shocking event to the nation. The conservatives in power were tainted by the execution of a hero of independence and former president. On 1 January , Bustamante took over the presidency. Bustamante had promised an effective administration, and customs revenues import and export taxes increased spectacularly, but the revenues were spent on administrative expenses and the military, to win its support with preferential payments, new equipment, and increased recruitment.
On top of customs revenues, Bustamante's government borrowed funds from moneylenders. His government jailed dissenters. In , Santa Anna seized the customs revenues from Veracruz and declared himself in rebellion against Bustamante. The bloody conflict ended with Santa Anna forcing the resignation of Bustamante's cabinet, and an agreement was brokered for new elections in Santa Anna won handily.
Santa Anna was elected president on 1 April , but while he desired the title, he was not interested in governing. According to Mexican historian Enrique Krauze , "It annoyed him and bored him, and perhaps frightened him. The nation was faced with an empty treasury and an 11 million peso debt incurred by the Bustamante government.
He could not cut back on the bloated expenditures on the army and sought other revenues. Taking a chapter out of the late colonial Spanish reforms , the government targeted the Roman Catholic Church. Anticlericalism was a tenet of Mexican liberalism , and the church had supported Bustamante's government, so targeting that institution was a logical move.
The church's role in education was reduced and the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico closed. All this caused concern among Mexican conservatives. A secondary goal of the colony was to help defend Alta California against perceived Russian colonial ambitions from the trading post at Fort Ross.
The army was also targeted for reform, since it was the largest single expenditure in the national budget. On Santa Anna's suggestion, the number of battalions was to be reduced as well as the number of generals and brigadiers. A law was issued, the Ley del Caso, that called for the arrest of 51 politicians, including Bustamante, for holding "unpatriotic" beliefs and ordered them expelled from the republic.
The plan called for repeal of the Ley del Caso and discouraged tolerance of the influence of Masonic lodges, where politics was pursued in secrecy; declared void the laws passed by Congress and the local legislatures in favor of the reforms; requested the protection of President Santa Anna to fulfill the plan and recognize him as the only authority; removal from office the deputies and officials who carried out enforcement of the reform laws and decrees; and provided military force to support the president in implementing the plan.
This set the stage for conservatives to reshape Mexico's government from a federalist republic to a unitary central republic. Santa Anna's actions in allowing this first reform followed by a more sweeping one in might have been a test case for liberalism.
At this point, Santa Anna was a liberal. He could be watchful and wait to see the reaction to a comprehensive attack on the special privileges of the army and the Roman Catholic Church, as well as confiscation of church wealth, enacted by the radical liberal congress. Santa Anna was pushed into action.
In May , he ordered the disarmament of the civic militia. He urged Congress to abolish the controversial Ley del Caso , under which the liberals' opponents had been sent into exile. During this period, Santa Anna brokered an agreement with the Catholic Church, which had signed on to the plan.
In exchange for preserving the Church's and the army's privileges, and the Church promised a monthly donation to the government of 30,—40, pesos. Santa Anna did not involve himself with the conservative centralists as they moved to replace the federal constitution that dispersed power to the states with a unitary power in the hands of the central government, seemingly uneasy with their political path.
Their fierce resistance was possibly fueled by reprisals Santa Anna committed against his defeated enemies. But, after two hours of combat on 12 May , Santa Anna's "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3, prisoners.
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