How to make a viking ship

how to make a viking ship

May 12,  · How To Make A Model Viking Ship - Presented by Celia BrothersMusic by Emily Brothers -, rkslogadoboj.comational products for sale: h Author: Junior Scholars. Jul 26,  · #viking #ship #craftsIn this video i will show how to make viking ship at home!All you need is cardboard & glue!Thank You For WatchingPlease Like And Share.

All Viking ships are clinker built; the planks were overlapped at one edge and riveted together. In clinker shipbuilding you start build the outside first, and then put a frame inside it.

The other style of wooden shipbuilding, used by the Mary Rose sship the Victory, is called carvel. In this style, the frame of the ship is made first, and planks what dosage of vitamin d should i take attached to it.

At the end of the middle ages, Carvel had overtaken clinker as the method of choice for making larger boats. Does this mean that clinker was a poorer method how to make a viking ship making boats?

Not exactly…. The advantage that carvel has over clinker is that it can be made using any quality of wood, whereas to make a Clinker boat, only the best wood can be used. Because how to make frozen french fries from fresh potatoes planks on a clinker-built boat overlap, they add strength to the boat, so the frame can be lighter.

The Vikings built their boats using simple tools — it has been said that you can make a Viking boat with nothing but an axe — but vikign used them in sophisticated ways. They followed the grain of the viming, to get the most strength and flexibility for the lowest weight. Carvel boats tended to be made with sawn timber. Saws are harder to make than axes, and they tend to cut across the grain.

This means that they can cut any timber any way you like, but the result will be weaker vikinb less flexible than an axe-cut timber. A heavier carvel boat will tend to fall into them, giving a rougher and slower ride. And the reasons that the clinker tradition stopped being used for larger vessels?

Well, no-one is quite sure. Ships were being built with multiple decks, which needed a heavy frame anyway to carry the cargo — or the new-fangled fo that warships were how to check your tire pressure at gas station to mount. The world was changing, and the heavy framed carvel boat was the vuking that survived that change.

A master ship-builder would set the design for the Viking ship, and he started with the keel. However, it was the two curving posts at the front and the back of the ship — the stem and the stern — which would determine what sort of shape the finished vessel would be. It is from this vital first stage that he got his name — the Stem-smith.

The Stem-smith was probably responsible for making sure that the hull was the correct shape. This would involve cutting planks in ways that seem counter-intuitive to us; seeing the planks out flat can lead you to wonder how they ever could fit together. However, the stem-smith appears to have been an expert in taking a two-dimensional plank and turning it into a three-dimensional ship. It is only with modern computer modelling and an understanding of how boats move through the water that we are starting to see how sophisticated these shapes could be.

For instance, How to make a viking ship ships did not have deep keels, because there were few if any harbours that could take them. This meant that, when sailing maie the wind anywhere other than right behind them, there was a tendency to be blown off course mariners call this leeway. I am not, of course, claiming that Viking boat builders were imbued with now powers, or knew modern hydrodynamic theory.

It was simply the culmination of centuries of experimental boatbuilding, with the boats and possibly boat builders that survived being copied by the next generation.

On one of the vessels found being used to block a channel at Skuldelev, in Denmark, it was found that there was a relationship between the length of the keel, the size of the stem post, the number of planks, and the radius of curvature of the plank lines at the stem.

Probably many boats, if not most, were built with a set of ideal proportions in the mind of the boat builder. Timber was used green — in other words, shortly after felling. This is different to more modern practice, where the timber is "seasoned" — left to dry for several years. Green wood is easier to work, and more flexible, which can help with some of the more complex shapes found in Viking boats.

Wood can be kept "green" for several years by keeping it immersed in water — a stem or stern of a Viking style boat was found on the island of Eig how to scan color negatives what, a thousand years ago, had been a lake.

As it had never been used — there were no indications of rivet holes — it was probably made up when the boat-builder had got a spare piece of suitable timber, and he was waiting for a similar bit for the stern or stem which never arrived.

It is also possible to vikint green wood without complex equipment like the steam boxes used today. Simply by heating a plank over a fire, the moisture inside the wood heats up and causes the fibres to loosen. This means that — for a few minutes — it can be twisted into shape with less danger of it splitting and breaking. It is highly likely that this was done during Viking times — we know the technique was used to make "expanded" log boats, for example.

Oak or pine were the preferred woods to construct boats from. The only reason for using one over the other appears to be what was growing locally. Even in the "pine building" regions mostly Northern Norway Oak was still the how to put a signature in microsoft outlook of choice for the keel, so it must have been imported from the South.

It's likely that masts and yards were made out of pine, so it may have been a two-way trade. The big difference between oak and pine is how planks are made from them. For oak, large straight trees of around two centuries old are cut, and then using wedges split multiple times like slices of a pie — it might be possible to get upwards of 60 planks from one tree. A pine tree will yield only two.

One advantage of pine over oak is that, as they age, pine planks will bend depending on whether the bark side of the plank faces the water or the inside of the boat, so they can be used to enhance the curve of the vessel over time.

Most of the British Isles was probably an oak building area, although what are obligations of citizens builders what movies did fred savage play in used the nearest timber to hand.

Certainly some boats appear to have been repaired with anything, including bits of other boats! It is, however, the strongest way that you can process wood, because it works with the grain of the wood — it gains strength by following the way that the tree grows. The log is split using an axe to make a cut, running up and down the trunk. The split is widened and extended ,ake driving wedges into it, until eventually the whole trunk splits in half.

At this point, for a pine tree, the splitting stops. Younger pine trees are used, which are only about half the diameter of the an oak. Oak trees can be split further; each half is split into quarters, each quarter split into eighths, and so on. In fact, from a year-old tree, with skill, about 64 planks can be obtained.

They are all slightly shpi, and quite rough, so they are smoothed down a little, like the pine planks. For the frames inside the ships, the Viking shipwrights used another type of timber that is rarely seen today — the grown timber. A grown timber is simply one that has grown to the right shape. The grain runs in mqke direction that was needed, making the timber incredibly strong. Viking ship frames are like display cases of grown timbers. For instance, the stem and stern posts would be taken from large, curved branches.

Where two parts of the frame are to meet usually a weak spot that needs re-enforcement the Vikings used a single timber, cut from a branching element how to draw abs anime a how to draw si robertson step by step. The tools used for this smoothing would appear to us at first glance quite simple.

An axe with a long blade could be used to smooth, as could an adze and a draw knife. Planes were known, and are shown being used for boat building on the Bayeux tapestry. Later on in the process, augers would start holes for rivets and trenails.

Profiled irons would make decorative marks in the planks, or carve channels for caulking. These apparently simple tools were so good that they remained unchanged for centuries — in fact, until the introduction of modern power tools! To make a How to make a furry cat costume ship, you lay down a keel first. The keel is made of Oak, as long and as straight as you can get.

Often this shape will change along the length of the keel, changing from a V section at the stem and stern front and back to a U section in the middle.

This is to help shape the final lines of the hull. Two pieces of curved wood are attached at the front and back of the keel, the Stem and Stern pieces. There is some evidence to show that there was a relationship between the length of keel and the diameter of curve in the stem and t pieces. Viking ships are pretty much symmetrical both fore and aft front and back and port and starboard left and rightso the curve in these pieces will be the same.

Two types of stem and stern piece construction have been found. In one, the stems are simple curves. In the other, they are carved and notched with steps, forming the beginnings of the planks that they will eventually hold.

Although this is a lot of work to do, it can save time in fiking long run. It was important for Viking ships to have the planks sweeping up and running together along the stems. It is then ready to have the planks or strakes put on it.

The first strake to go on is called the Garboard strake dunno why, shipp just is and it is riveted and nailed on to the keel. Iron rivets are the most common Viking method of joining planks together modern clinker boats use copper. Nails suip used where the end of the rivet cannot be reached — usually at the stem and stern, where space is tight.

The heads of the rivets are bent over rectangular ish washers, which are called roves. The next plank is riveted on to the garboard strake, so that it overlaps it when seen from maie. The rivet passes through the outside of the plank near its bottom edge, through the garboard strake near its top edge, and it is bent over a washer inside the boat. Caulking or luting is used to stop water from getting into the boats. No wooden boat can claim to be entirely watertight, but the Vikings did their best.

It was laid in the groove on the plank and, when the plank was riveted to the rest hoq the hsip, created an almost watertight seal, whilst still having the flexibility to move with the boat.

As each plank is riveted to the next, vikinh boat would begin to take shape. To get the boat to the correct profile involves cutting the planks into some fairly strange shapes. The way that the ends of the planks join onto the stem and stern helps determine the profile of the boat — whether it will be a beamy cargo ship or a knife-thin warship. The larger the ship, the more planks will be required. Long ships would require that several shorter planks be joined together by scarf joints — some of which could be quite elaborate.

As the planks are added one above the other, clamps were used to hold them in place and the frame inside could be added.

Wood for Shipbuilding

The clinkered Viking ships stands in strong contast to the carvel method where strakes are fastened onto a skeleton of ribs. The Vikings applied a shell-first sequence, laying the keel first, then adding strakes and fitting the internal timbers as the last more. The clinkered Viking ships stands in strong contast to the carvel method where strakes are fastened onto a skeleton of ribs. The Vikings applied a shell-first sequence, laying the keel first, then adding strakes and fitting the internal timbers as the last stage.

Building a Viking ship or a boat of Norse design involves a traditional craftsmanship which is a refined art, delivered from master to apprentice, usually from father to son for generations. The skills vere passed on as tacit knowledge, mostly orally and by by practising the craft, usually without any detailed drawings or accurate diagrams. In additon, very often the crafter was himself an experienced seafarer, having participated in seasonal fisheries in the fjords and offshore from his early teens, giving him a first hand experience of what distinguished a good boat from a dangerous one.

I have not yet built a wooden boat myself, but by visiting and knowing several boat builders I have a fair understanding of the main principles of how it has been and still is done in north-western Norway. This page is meant to explain some of the basic steps of norse wooden shipbuilding, and should not be regarded as a complete how-to guide as skill and experience is difficult to pass on in plain text. The clinkered Viking ships stands in strong contast to the carvel method where strakes are fastened onto a skeleton of ribs.

The Vikings applied a shell-first sequence , laying the keel first, then adding strakes and fitting the internal timbers as the last stage. A Viking ship is much lighter and more flexible than a carvel built ship of the same size, giving the Viking ship both excellent seaworthyness and making it capable of crossing shallow waters as rivers and allowing the crew to pull it ashore in a hurry. The steps mentioned here is for smaller tradition boats as I have seen it, but the Viking ship were built in the same manner.

The larger ships are reinforced in the stem and the stern in comparison to the smaller boats and the scale is, of course, much larger. This following description is roughly how clinker built boats have been made traditionally in Scandinavia. The earliest boats were sewn with animal guts, but were soon replaced with rivets as soon as iron gradually became accessible for the boat builders some years ago.

The iron rivets are still called 'saum' in Norwegian dialects, literally meaning 'stitch', revealing an unbroken tradition of lapstrake building that reaches beyond the Iron age. The lapstrake hull in detail with english and the names of the parts in Old Norse language. This is a basic Viking boat.

Arrangement for supporting the hull before the ribs are mounted. Crafter is Jakob S. Every part of the hull have specific names, even each of the strakes. Some of the hand tools used today in wooden boat building. A major difference from the viking age is the development of good saws and planes. The keel is cut and planed into its T- or Yshape and levelled onto temporary wooden blocks fastened to the floor in the workshop. The measures of the keel is of couse according to the chosen boat design.

The keel must be cept firmly in position. It should be made from dry and 'dead' wood to prevent deformations during the construction, and, of course, be absolutely straight as seem from above. Some Viking ships, as the Oseberg ship, have a rockered keel, which means that the keel have to be fashioned into a curve before any strakes can be fitted. Many crafts also sported shallow false keels on. Attach the false keel now, if it was present originally. Keel sections with T or Y -profile are always clinkered, while rebated sections are secured with long nails with roseheads 5" - 6" in larger ships.

The stem and stern is fastened to the keel using wooden plugs or sturdy nails and roves, and adjusted into position using supporting rods attached to a rugged beam above the boat. Proof the overlapping surfaces with thick pine tar before final mounting. Any ornamentation of the stem and stern should be carved in advance, as well as giving the stem its final curvature.

Stepped stems with 'wings' are particularly challenging to make. Building temporary scaffolds fore and aft can be necessary before the bow pieces can be fitted properly. Longships will normally require transition timbers between the keel and the bows; short keel extentions that were called 'undirluthr' in Old Norse. The first two strakes are dressed or sawn and planed into shape and fastened to the keel at each side by iron clinkering through the T-profile of the keel, just as if the keel was a strake.

Starting aft at the stern, each plank is temporarily fastened with clamps to adjust and fine tune the bevel along the top edge of the strake.

Several adjustments and trials may have to be carried out until the plank can be permanently clinkered. Stubborn strakes can be steamed to make them more flexible. Before final clinking, the edge of each strake must be proofed against leaks. Traditionally the caulking was done with animal hairs usually from sheep or cows or yarn proofed with tar, applied onto the lower inner edge the land of each successive strake.

The nails are set from the outside and clinkered to their counterparts; the 'roves', on the inside. Drill pilot holes for the nails, and use a dolly in the inside while driving the nails through the strakes.

Any excess length of the nail shaft is cut away and the rivet rounded by simultaneously hammering from each side, peening down the nail stub to a small lump which secures the rove. The following strakes are attached to each previous strake by overlapping about an inch, somewhat more in larger ships. The strakes are kept in position by supporting rods both before and after they are clinkered together. At this stage the hull is formed, 'laying out' the floor strakes in the bilge.

The strakes are adjusted into position by supporting rods to the floor and to the beam above the boat see illustration.

The symmetry of each side has to be checked carefully, as any errors in shape are hard to correct later. On larger ships the sheer mass of the planks will make supporting rods on the upper side obsolete. When a new plank is finished on one side, it can be used as a template to mirror the corresponding strake on the opposite side. Sight along the edges of the subsequently fitted strakes to adjust for any bumps, cavities, hewing or fashioning the edge to ensure a smooth line before fitting the next strake.

A hole ca 1" to drain the hull when the boat is pulled ashore should be made in one of the garboards. In particular, if you are building in the open, the hull will collect rain water which have to be evacuated also in the construction period. The hole is best placed somewhere aft of the mast close to the keel. If you want to copy a successful hull design, interior templates can be used to adjust the positions of the strakes before fastening.

When most strakes have been clinkered, up to the ' meginhufr ' 'the strong strake', see below , it is time to place the interior floortimbers and ribs in the hull. These should be made from naturally grown bent wood, as roots and branches. This gives them much greater strength and elasticity than if they were cut from straight logs.

Designs from the 9th century may have lashed ribs below the waterline, while treenails with wedges are used to secure the ribs in designs from the 10th century and later. The wedges should be placed transversely on the inside of the rib, to prevent the rib from shattering. Apply tar proofing to the joing surfaces on both the ribs and the corresponding area of the strakes to prevent rotting.

The foremost pair of rib tops can be extended into bollards on larger crafts as posts for mooring ropes. If mast should be present, the keelson and mast block mast 'fish' is mounted along with the ribs. After the ribs are fastened any remaining strakes are added and fastened to standing knees and futtocks that in turn rest on top of the crossbeams, secured with treenails.

These upper strakes are never lashed, but secured with treenails, except for the top of the futtocks which are fastened with a rivet or a clenched nail. If oar holes are part of the design, make the oar holes with the oar blade slits before the strake is clinkered to the hull. Oarlocks are fastened along the gunwale, either with treenails or lashings in older designs as Nydam.

However, any craft have either oarlocks or oar ports exclusively, never a mix. The tiles are loose in smaller crafts. The boat is treated with a mix of pine tar and turpentine for proofing. Soaked cloths with turpentine causes high risk of self-ingnition, so take care and dispose all soaked cloths safely. The boat must be treated several times 'wet-in-wet' both inside and outside.

The thwarts should not be proofed. The steering oar is made and mounted, with tiller. The rudder is secured with a sturdy withy willow or a hewser running through a rudder boss on the outside of the hull, and an adjustable band of skin, sometimes braided, at the gunwhale. The rudder willow is tied to the aft bulkhead.

If the rudder is very large tall, with a deep draught , this is better done after sea launch. Do this properly, as the rudder is a critical component. Make a spare rudder for longer voyages. Mast, yard, sail, ropes, anchor and oars are made independently of the hull. The oars fore and aft can preferably be made a little bit longer than the oars amidships.

Mark each oar with numbers or symbols perhaps some cool runes? S for starboard and P for port side or B for the 'back board' is a good and intuitive system. Time for sea launch! Large boats for salty waters must first be primed below the water-line to prevent fouling and wood gnarling worms and molluscs.

Remember also to plug the draining hole. The traditional way to launch a Viking ship is to haul it to the water by pulling it over logs that rest on the ground. This operation requires well coordination. A large ship can be difficult to launch and the operation can be dangerous. Clear command lines is vital. Wait until the weather is favourable, with little crosswinds at the launching point, and the tide is high. An empty hull is light and catches wind easily. You don't want to ruin the boat now!

Expect the boat to leak a bit at first, sometimes a lot in the first couple of days. This is quite normal. But the hull will swell and the leak will decrease. If the boat shall carry sail, it is now time to rise the mast and tie all ropes in the standing rig, as stays and shrouds, into position.

Shrouds and stay s should be made adjustable with certain curved wooden levers that are used to attach the ropes to short slings of rope. Any blocks in the rig are usually made without pulleys wheels.

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