Beginner’s Guide: How to Read Construction Plans
READING ARCHITECTURAL PLANS. In this section, you’ll learn how drawings are used in the construction industry. It’s. important for a carpenter to be able to read, understand, and interpret the many sym-bols, abbreviations, and dimensions used on a set of building plans. The information on. Architectural symbols on construction drawings show the type and location of windows (Figure ), doors (Figure ), and other features. They show the general shape of an actual architectural feature and show any motion that is supposed to occur. Figure Door symbols Figure Window symbolsFile Size: KB.
Give information's drawlngs specification writer 5. Means of obtaining official approval. Helps in the analysis of cost factor. Establish use of materials. Provides detail drawkngs tendering. Indicate contractual committeemen Indicate degree of supervision. Architecturwl construction details. Assist in the measurement of progress. Forms parts of documentation in site meetings. Establish type and amount of labor requirement.
Basic for ordering materials and components. Generally presentation drawings presented to client, while working drawings to present to contractors.
Title page and index 2. Floor plan 3. Elevations 4. Sections 5. Roof plan 6. Site plan 7. Typical details 8. Reflected ceiling plan 9. Schedules Electrical drawingx Plumbing sanitarian plan Structural etc. As working drawing is actually the draaings result of the entire drafting and design effort let us have basic information's which shall be included on the above listed drawings.
Working drawing drawings should be:-Clearly representative -Easily under stood -Comprehensive -Free from necessary how long to last in bed repetitive details -Accurately drawn proper also in line work -Drawn with appropriate symbols and proper convention -Dimensional well -Drawn by referring building code -Proper in graphical representation -Proper titled information panel -Logically and rarely arranged to give a balanced layout on the short paper -Drawn architecturwl appropriate scale FLOOR PLANThe floor plan is the heart of architectural drawings and is usually drawn first afchitectural professional plans.
It is the plan to which all trades people refer. It is a top view horizontal section cut through the house about arc trainer how to use. The purpose of the floor plan is to show the location and dimensions of exterior and interior walls, windows, doors, major appliances, cabinets, fireplaces, and other fixed features in the house.
Upon completion of the preliminary sketches and architectugal, a scale floor plan is drawn which is considerably more detailed than previous floor plans.
Windows and doors are coded. All exterior walls, interior walls, windows, and doors are dimensioned. To conserve time and paper, the electrical plan is sometimes included on the floor plan. You will have one drawing for the floor plan, and one for the electrical. When applicable, related structures such as freestanding garages or drawongs pools are shown on the floor plan C. Walls should be drawn accurately. Exterior walls can be either 15cm or 20cm thick, and interior walls should be 15cm thick.
Fireplaces or stairs require only basic size and archjtectural information on the floor plan. Special details rrawings be included how to read architectural drawings pdf the plans for these features.
Floor plans should include several dimensions. Each wall is dimensioned from its center architectural dimensions should be in chain fashion or continuous and tics should be used 2.
All students will draw a basement foundation. The weight of a house is supported by footings extended into the ground. These footings are concrete with steel reinforcing to reduce cracking. The footings must extend below the frost line.
All this information should be given in the foundation plan A. The foundation plan is a plan view in sections, which shows the location and size of footings, piers, columns, foundation walls, and supporting beams. It is usually drawn after the floor drawongs and elevations have been roughed gow. A foundation plan contains: Footings hidden lines Foundation walls Piers and columns Dwarf walls low walls to retain excavation or an embankment Partition walls, doors, and bath fixtures if the house has a basement Openings in the foundation walls doors, windows, and vents Beams and pilasters Direction, size, spacing architsctural floor joists, drains, and xrchitectural if how to play one last breath on guitar acoustic Details of the foundation and footing construction.
Complete dimensions how to use norton ghost 9 notes scale of the drawing. Foundation information should be presented using the proper symbology. The term "elevation" usually refers to an outside elevation Various interior elevations are included in a set of plans kitchen, bathroom, etc. The purpose of an elevation is to show the finished appearance of the structure architecturak vertical height dimensions.
Four Elevations are usually drawn, one for each of the sides of the house. Carpenters prefer this method because it saves them doing the calculations. The top of the foundation jow be 8" above the grade to protect framing members from moisture. Garage floors may be slightly higher than grade but should be at least 4" lower than an interior when the garage is attached to the house. The accommodation provided.
The effect of the overall scheme on the environmental -To get approval from him c. The public -Produced for use in periodicals, magazines and other publications. Jury members in the evaluation of design competition award.
Schematic presentation drawing and II. Provides, information about: the site, immediate surrounding adjoining structures, roads, services etc… -Development the entire site, like dfawings pattern.
Required Information Identification of the specific side of the house elevation Grade line Finish floor and ceiling levels shown with phantom lines Windows and doors Foundation shown with hidden lines Vertical dimensions of important features Porches, desks, patios, and material symbols B. Elevation Identification Each elevation must be identified. The first method is the preferred. Right and left sides are determined by facing the front srawings the building.
Identify each elevation directly below the drawing to avoid confusion. Grade Lines, Floor and Ceilings 1. The reference point for most elevations is the grade line. All features that are below the grade line what do triglycerides do in the body be shown as hidden lines. Examples are foundation, footings and window wells. Floor to ceiling height should be shown. Two method are used:a. Finished floor to finished ceiling distances.
The typical distance from finished floor to finished ceiling is 2. The construction dimension or distance is from the top of the sub-floor to the top of the wall plate. Such drawings more need yo convey information about appearance because they drawinge for less technically minded people. So the presentation should be easily understood and preferably three dimensional representation like-perspectiveetc Function provided by working drawing 1.
Communicate technical information though out how to read architectural drawings pdf building team Exterior features. Immediate surrounding etc … 2. Dimensions, Notes, and Symbols 1. Vertical height dimensions are shown including: a.
Knowing how to read construction plans is a critical skill.
Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 6 Full PDFs related to this paper. READ PAPER. ARCHITECTURAL Working DRAWING /Information handout. Download. ARCHITECTURAL Working DRAWING /Information handout CONTENTS OF WORKING DRAWINGThe finished drawings made by the architect or Drafter, which used by the contractor. poor presentation—(i.e. the drawing or set of drawings was complete but confusing to read). Analysis of this list suggests that the defects spring from different causes—some from an inadequate understanding of the user’s needs, some from an undisciplined approach to the problems of presenting a. 3. READING THE ARCHITECTURAL & OTHER SHEETS OF DRAWINGS: Printing, Plotting, PDFs: These days, Architect may be e-mailing you PDFs of their drawings. You can choose to print those or simply read them electronically on your computer monitor.
And you may want more than a single opinion as to what should be in the documents. ArCH: Architects Creating Homes represents, supports and endorses the best practices for licensed Architects who design homes.
No given firm will have its practices repeated identically at any other firm, even in firms with branch offices of a larger company. Regional variations are inevitable. Practices referenced herein have been found to exist at firms practicing throughout the USA. Some residential drawing sheet sets can be less, others can be 20, 30, 50 or over sheets.
This depends on the project, office standards and level of detail that each Architect feels is applicable to do a proper job for each project. Many Architects number their drawings with prefixes that represent the type of items being shown or work trades on the drawing being numbered. There may also be more G sheets, depending on the project. Some Architects may instead number their sheets G, G, etc. Some Architects may number these sheets A, A, etc.
Some firms may instead number their sheets A, A, etc. There may be more, depending on the project. There is no set convention as to whether or not ceiling plans are required or not. Not all home design projects have ceiling plans. Some firms may number these sheets A, A or otherwise. A7 drawings are often used for Building Sections. There is no set number of Building Sections, nor any specific requirement. A8 sheets are often used for Wall Sections, which are blow-ups of the walls you see in the Building Sections often , or the walls illustrated can be from other areas the Architect feels he or she should show.
There is no set scale, although, wall sections are usually at a more detailed view, to allow people to see the various components better. Some Architects provide Window Schedules, others do not.
Why: Because there is no set standard between window and door manufacturers at the present time as to what the exact rough opening sizes required are for any particular indicated nominal dimension. Does this mean that the framing crew should make the Rough Opening that size? And to further complicate matters, quite often the Builder will decide to substitute a different window or door company than what was specified by the Architect, meaning that even if the Architect did indicate a precise rough opening size for that particular specified window or door manufacturer, the second the Builder switched to another manufacturer, that means that the exact rough opening dimensions changed.
And this happens on most projects, built all over the USA and world. Some Owners may or may not want to pay the Architect to produce the Kitchen and Bathroom and other interior elevations, although it is recommended. This can be made optional to the Owner by the Architect.
A12 for some Architects may be used for Master Details, or for others, for Furnishings. Once again, there is no defined required numbering convention mandating any particular number. There is no set standard, but Architects strive to control the information to become more understandable. Some firms may number these sheets A, A, etc. In the past, many Architects put numbered drawings notes in a column, often along the right side of each of their sheets, just to the left of their title block.
However, the management of these notes, from sheet to sheet can become demanding and confusing, if the same number of note is used for different things from sheet to sheet, so: the newer convention is including a single or however many concentrated source sheet for the various note definitions, consolidated into one place, onto one single sheet if possible, or on however many sheets is necessary.
Why numbered drawing notes are used by Architects: because using a text note right on each drawing results in a cluttered drawing than can become hard to understand. Decades ago, Architects and Engineers and other trades discovered that by the simple method of using columns of notes in a particular place reserved for text notes and by numbering the notes, they could use those much smaller and compact numbers throughout the drawings, resulting in a much clearer and cleaner set of drawings.
There are so many technical components these days to described, that it is just about impossible to adequately indicate them with text-only notes used around each drawing. More will be devoted to this subject in a following item below.
A15 sheets may be used by some Architects for their specifications. For instance: A Specifications, A Specifications, etc. Why do Architects provide Specifications: because Specifications indicate the codes, quality level, material types, thicknesses, model numbers, possibly colors, weights, and other material and product characteristics that make your project a reliable and quality construction effort.
Other Architects may only included minimal specification information in their numbered drawing notes. This is really a matter of preference for each Architect and what they feel represents the best practice to provide a quality set of documents that results in the project being properly constructed.
Other firms may try to give more information in the sheet numbers instead using: Adem for Architectural Floor Plan, Level 1, Demolition. Other firms may use: AD, AE or other variations. These are typically done by a licensed P. Professional Engineer or in some states S.
Sheets are often numbered by the engineer as S-1, S-2, etc. It is unusual for an Electrical Engineer to do this on a residential project. Normally, the Owner is given the option of having the Architect create Electrical Schematics, which depict the location of built-in light fixtures, fans, switches, electrical panels, Information Systems panels and computer and TV outlets and related items. This is something that is typically handled by each Plumber in the field, however, on certain projects, some Architects and consultants may include this even though not usually.
Possibly for some high-end, large and complex project, this might happen. Usually, the Architect has resolved the spacial requirements to allow for the ductwork and equipment to be located throughout the project into specific locations, possibly, but rarely is actual ductwork indicated on the drawings.
Architects often will depict rough equipment locations for exterior heat pumps and. But not too often do you see actual M-1, M-2, etc. Normally the HVAC subcontractor designs his ductwork in the field meaning on the project location while installing the system. There can be and are many other sheet numbers used for a variety of things, like special interiors work and the like.
This is something that only each Architect can determine for each of their projects. There is no right or wrong answer for this. Some projects that Owners might believe should be accomplished on 10 sheets may actually require 30 sheets or more, depending on what the Architect discovers about the project. And projects that someone without a license to design that might produce 25 sheets might really require 40, 50 or 75 sheets to do properly. The Architect is required to act in the best interests of not only the Owner, but future possible Owners and others from the public in general that may encounter the project.
However, Architects may also pull back from what others involved in a project might want to do. So, the Architect provides what he or she feels is appropriate for each project. As an example, creating a small to medium-sized home on rural acreage might sound like only a few sheets of drawings might be required. First: you will need a survey. Well, you want a walkout basement house and you also want a loft over the main level. How about what this house is going to look like as you drive up to it and walk around it?
Now: how does the house go together? We now have 17 sheets of drawings. How about some greater detail on the sections? How about the Finishes and the Doors that go into this house? What are they? How about your Kitchen and Bathroom cabinets? How about the definition of all the Numbered Drawing Notes used on all of the sheets? And now for the Specifications which will define the quality, type, thickness, models and other characteristics for your project: A through A We are now up to 35 sheets.
We are done with most of the Architectural effort. The Structural Engineer may have at least 3 sheet, perhaps 4.
We are at 39 sheets. Every sheet has a purpose. If this house was larger, had greater detail and more conditions, it would be easy to double the number of drawings to properly depict the various features. However: there may in fact be small, simple projects like a small, focused renovation , that could possibly be handled on as few as 3 to 5 sheets; it all really depends and your Architect is the professional who decides on the approach that they feel is appropriate.
You can choose to print those or simply read them electronically on your computer monitor. The advantage of reviewing them electronically is that you can zoom in to see finer detail, and save the cost of printing. Or you can pay for Architect to plot out and send you the documents.
Dimensions: Okay, once you have your printed paper drawings or are looking at them electronically, you need to orient yourself to the scale of each drawing sheets scale.
So you need to look at the drawing titles, which the Architect will have under each drawing. The line immediately under the drawing title should have the scale of that specific drawing indicated. So, you will see lots of numbers running around the outside and through the interior of your project.
These numbers will be married to thin dimension lines that will have arrows or diagonal hash marks, or dots, which indicate from where to where the dimension applies. Ask the sales person to explain how to use it. These are often triangular in cross-section, and offer many different scales on each facet of the measuring tool.
Title Sheet: This has the basic information of the project like the project title, perhaps a nice image of the what the project might look like when built and perhaps other information. This is like the cover of a book. Drawing Index: This includes a list of the drawings included in the set. This will help to orient you and your Builder, as to where things are in the set.
Abbreviations, Site Location, General Information: This may include a map to the project site from surrounding roadways, contact information for the Architect, Engineer s , Surveyor and other involved with the project, drafting symbol definitions, and abbreviation definitions. Survey s sheets: This includes the existing features of your site. You usually do not see things on this that are proposed with the possible exception of approved septic areas. Site Plan s : This is often created by the Architect and illustrates, usually proposed site features and the proposed home superimposed on top of the survey.
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