62 Waters Blog
?·?Water, also known as H 2 O, is a substance composed of the chemical elements hydrogen (H 2) and oxygen (O 2). As the polar inorganic compound, water is a colorless, tasteless and odorless liquid. Water being the most studied chemical compound, is known as the universal solvent. The physical and chemical properties of water under hydrothermal conditions have been summarized by Franck (). The PVT data and other physical properties for water up to °C and 10kbar are accurately known and show some remarkable behavior.
Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter and may yhe many different forms on Earth:. At high temperatures and pressures, such as in the interior of giant planets, it is argued that water exists as ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions, and at even higher pressures as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float around freely within the oxygen lattice.
Back FAQ. Chemical and Physical Properties of Water. Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter and phjsical take many different forms on Earth: water vapour and clouds in the sky; seawater and icebergs in the polar oceans; qre and wht in the mountains; and the liquid in aquifers in the ground.
The major chemical and physical properties of water are: water is a tasteless, odourless liquid at standard temperature and pressure. The colour of water and ice is, intrinsically, a very slight blue hue, how to invest in index water appears colourless in small quantities.
Ice also appears colourless, and water vapour is essentially invisible as a gas. Only strong UV light is slightly absorbed.
Since the water molecule is not linear and the oxygen atom has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen atoms, it carries a slight negative charge, whereas the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive. As a result, water is a polar molecule with an electrical dipole moment. Water also can form an unusually large number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds four for a molecule of its size. These factors lead to strong attractive forces between molecules of water, giving rise how to frame a window sill water's high surface tension and capillary forces.
The capillary action refers to the tendency of water to move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. This property is relied upon by all vascular plants, such as trees. Water is a good solvent and is often referred to as the universal solvent.
Substances that dissolve in water, e. All the major components in cells proteins, DNA and polysaccharides are also dissolved in water. Pure water has wht low electrical conductivity, but this increases significantly with the dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as sodium chloride. The boiling point of water and all other liquids is dependent on the barometric pressure.
For example, on the top of Mt. Everest water boils at 68 degrees Celsius, compared to degrees Celsius at sea level. Conversely, water deep in the ocean near geothermal vents can reach temperatures of hundreds of degrees and remain liquid. These two unusual properties allow water to moderate Earth's climate by buffering large fluctuations in temperature.
The maximum density of water occurs at 3. It has the anomalous property of becoming less dense, not more, when it is cooled down to its solid form, ice. It expands to occupy 9 percent greater volume in this solid state, which accounts for the fact of ice floating on liquid how to make beef jerky in your oven. Let's connect.
Chemical and Physical Properties of Water
?·?Chemical Characteristics of Water 1. Total Solids and Suspended Solids Total solids (suspended solids + dissolved solids) can be obtained by evaporating a sample of water and weighing the dry residue left and weighing the residue left on the filter paper.
Sorry, you do not have permission to ask a question, You must log in to ask a question. Become VIP Member. Do you need to remove the ads? Water has three characteristics, i.
The raw treated water can be checked and analysed by studying and testing these characteristics as explained below:. The turbidity can be easily measured in the field with the help of a turbidity rod. The turbidity can be easily measured in the laboratory with the help of a instruments called turbidity meter. In general, a turbidity meter works on the principle of measuring the interference caused by the water sample to the passage of light rays. The height of water column will therefore be more for less turbid water and vice versa.
Longer the light path lower the turbidity. Such a turbidimeter can not measure turbidites lower than 25 JTU. It can be used for natural sources only and can not be used to measure the turbidity of treated water supplies, for which Baylis turbidity meter or modern nephelometers are used. One of the two glass tubes is filled with water sample whose turbidity I to be measured and the other is filled with standard water solution of known turbidity.
The electric bulb is lighted and the blue colour in both the tubes is observed from the top of the instrument. The presence of colour in water is not objectionable from health point of view, but may spoil the colour of the clothes being washed. The standard unit of colour is that which is produced by one milligram of platinum cobalt dissolved in one litre of distilled water.
For public supplies, the colour number on cobalt scale should not exceed 20 and should be preferably less than The extent of taste or odour present in a particular sample of water is measured by a term called odour intensity , which is related with the threshold odour or threshold odour number.
Water to be tested is therefore gradually diluted with odour free water, and the mixture at which the detection of odour by human observation is just lost, is determined.
The number of times the sample is diluted represents the threshold odour number. For public supplies, the water should generally free from odour, i.
For potable water, temperature of about about C is desirable. It should not be more than C. The total amount of dissolved salts present in water can be easily estimated by measuring the specific conductivity of water. The suspended solid can be found by filtering the water sample. Total permissible amount of solids in water is generally limited to ppm. If concentration increases, pH decreases and then it will be acidic. If concentration decreases, pH increases and then it will be alkaline.
The alkalinity is caused by the presence of bicarbonate of calcium and magnesium or by the carbonates of hydroxides of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Hard waters are undesirable because they may lead to greater soap consumption, scaling of boilers, causing corrosion and incrustation of pipes, making food tasteless etc.
Temporary Hardness : If bicarbonates and carbonates of calcium and magnesium are present in water, the water is render hard temporarily as this hardness can be removed to some extent by simple boiling or to full extent by adding lime to water. Such a hardness is known as temporary hardness or carbonate hardness. Permanent Hardness: If sulphates, chlorides and nitrates of calcium or magnesium are present in water, they can not be removed at al by simple boiling and therefore, such water require special treatment for softening.
Such a hardness is known as permanent hardness or non-carbonate hardness. The chloride content of treated water to be supplied to the public should not exceed a value of about ppm. The chloride content of water can be measured by titrating the water with standard silver nitrate solution using potassium chromate as indicator. Fluoride concentration of less than 0. If fluoride concentration is greater than 1.
Oxygen gas is generally absorbed by water from the atmosphere but it being consumed by unstable organic matter for their oxidation. Hence, if the oxygen present in water is found o be less than its saturation level, it indicates presence of organic matter and consequently making the waters suspicious.
The extent of organic matter present in water sample can be estimated by supplying oxygen to this sample and finding the oxygen consumed by the organic matter present in water. This oxygen demand is known as Biological oxygen demand BOD. It is not practically possible to determine ultimate oxygen demand. Hence, BOD of water during the first five days at C is generally taken as the standard demand.
Five types of parasitic organisms i. These are the minute single cell organisms possessing no defined nucleus and having no green material to help them manufacture their own food. They are reproduced by binary fusion and may of various shapes and sizes are 1 to 4 microns, examined by microscope. These are single cell animals and are the lowest and the simplest form of animal life. They are bacteria eaters and thus destroy Pathogens. They are counted by microscope.
These are those plants which grow without sunlight and live on other plants or animals, dead or alive. These can be tested and counted in the laboratories but with great difficulty. These tests are therefore, generally not performed in routine to check up of the water quality. The usual routine tests are generally conducted to detect and count the presence of coliforms which in themselves harmless organisms, but their presence or absence indicates the presence or absence of pathogenic bacteria.
It may be defined as the reciprocal of the smallest quantity of a sample which would give a positive portion. Coliform sometimes called bacteria coli B-coli or Escherichia E-coli are harmless aerobic micro-organisms. If not more than 1 coliform is present per ml of water, then water is said to be safe for drinking. Join Join TheConstructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people. Have an account? Log in Now. Join for free or log in to continue reading Remember Me!
Don't have account, Join Here. Forgot Password Lost your password? Ask A Question. The raw treated water can be checked and analysed by studying and testing these characteristics as explained below: Contents: Physical Characteristics of Water 1. Turbidity of Water 2. Colour 3. Taste and Odour 4.
Temperature of Water 5. Specific Conductivity Chemical Characteristics of Water 1. Total Solids and Suspended Solids 2. Hardness of Water 4. Chloride Content 5 Nitrogen Content 6. Metal and other chemical substances in water: 7. Bacteria 2.
Protozoa 3. Viruses 4. Worms 5. Fungi Classification of bacteria based on oxygen requirement:. Next article. Gopal Mishra. Related Posts.
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