Sudden Change in Behavior? Urinary Tract Infection Could Be the Cause
Sudden changes in behaviors and an increase in symptoms may indicate that your loved one has a UTI. Behavior changes and causes that seem to affect one’s personality may include sleeping issues, anxiety, depression, confusion, aggression, delusions, hallucinations and paranoia. Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and rkslogadoboj.comamine was discovered in and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, .
Amphetamine [note 2] contracted from a lpha - m ethyl ph en et hyl amine is a central nervous system CNS stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHDnarcolepsyand obesity.
Amphetamine was discovered in and exists as two enantiomers : [note 3] levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free basewhich is equal parts of the two enantiomers, levoamphetamine what is the difference between yogurt and frozen yogurt dextroamphetamine, in sudeen pure amine forms.
The term is frequently used informally van refer to any combination of the enantiomers, or to either of them alone. Historically, it has been used to treat nasal congestion and depression. Amphetamine is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancerand recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use.
The first amphetamine pharmaceutical was Benzedrinea brand which was used to treat a variety of conditions. Currently, pharmaceutical amphetamine is prescribed as racemic amphetamine, Adderall[note 4] suddejor the inactive prodrug drpression. Amphetamine increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitter systems.
At therapeutic doses, amphetamine causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoriachange in whzt for sexincreased wakefulnessand improved cognitive control. It induces physical effects such as improved reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength.
Larger doses of amphetamine may impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown. Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to occur from long-term medical use at therapeutic doses. Very high doses can result in psychosis e. Recreational doses are generally much larger than prescribed therapeutic doses and wudden a far greater risk of serious side effects. Amphetamine belongs to the phenethylamine class.
It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines[note 5] which includes prominent substances such as bupropioncathinoneMDMAand methamphetamine. As a member of the phenethylamine class, amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulators, specifically phenethylamine and N -methylphenethylamineboth of which are produced within the human body.
Phenethylamine is the parent compound of amphetamine, while N -methylphenethylamine is a positional isomer of amphetamine that differs only in the placement of the methyl group. Amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHDnarcolepsy a sleep disorderand obesityand is sometimes prescribed off-label how to promote my business for free its past medical indicationsparticularly for depression and chronic pain.
Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of ADHD.
Current models of ADHD suggest that it is associated with functional impairments in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems ;  these functional impairments involve impaired dopamine neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic projection and norepinephrine neurotransmission in the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the prefrontal cortex.
Amphetamine is used by some athletes for its psychological and athletic performance-enhancing effectssuch as increased endurance and alertness;   however, non-medical amphetamine use is prohibited at sporting events that are regulated by collegiate, national, and international anti-doping agencies.
The adverse side effects of amphetamine are many and varied, and the amount of amphetamine used is the primary factor in determining the likelihood and severity of adverse effects. Cardiovascular side effects can include hypertension or hypotension from a vasovagal responseRaynaud's phenomenon reduced blood flow to the hands and feetand tachycardia increased causee rate. Amphetamine stimulates the surden respiratory centersproducing faster and deeper breaths. USFDA-commissioned studies from indicate that in children, young adults, and adults there is no association between serious adverse cardiovascular events sudden deathheart attackand stroke and the medical use of amphetamine or other ADHD stimulants.
At normal therapeutic doses, the most common psychological side effects of amphetamine include increased alertnessapprehension, concentrationinitiative, self-confidence and sociability, mood swings elated mood followed by mildly depressed moodinsomnia or wakefulness sudedn, and decreased sense of fatigue.
Amphetamine has also been shown to produce a conditioned place preference in humans taking therapeutic doses,   meaning that individuals acquire a preference for cwn time in places where they have previously used amphetamine.
Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to occur from long-term medical use at therapeutic doses;    in fact, lifetime stimulant therapy for ADHD that begins during childhood reduces the risk of developing substance use disorders as an adult. Chronic use of amphetamine at excessive doses causes alterations in gene expression in the mesocorticolimbic projectionwhich arise through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms.
The effects of amphetamine on gene regulation are both dose- and route-dependent. As of December[update] there is no effective pharmacotherapy for amphetamine addiction. A systematic review and meta-analysis from assessed the efficacy of 17 different pharmacotherapies used in RCTs for amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction;  it found only low-strength evidence that methylphenidate might reduce amphetamine or methamphetamine self-administration.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis of 50 trials involving 12 different psychosocial interventions for amphetamine, methamphetamine, or cocaine addiction found that combination therapy with both contingency management and community reinforcement approach had the highest efficacy i. Additionally, research on the neurobiological effects of physical exercise suggests that daily aerobic exercise, especially endurance exercise e.
Drug tolerance develops rapidly in amphetamine abuse i. An amphetamine overdose can lead to many different symptoms, but is rarely fatal with appropriate care. In rodents and primates, sufficiently high doses of amphetamine cause dopaminergic neurotoxicityor damage to dopamine neurons, which is characterized by dopamine terminal degeneration and reduced transporter and receptor function.
An amphetamine overdose can result in a stimulant psychosis that may involve a variety of symptoms, such as delusions and paranoia.
Many types of substances are known to interact with amphetamine, resulting in altered drug action or metabolism of amphetamine, the interacting substance, or both. In particular, amphetamine may decrease the effects of sedatives and depressants and increase the effects of stimulants and antidepressants.
In general, there is no significant interaction when consuming amphetamine with food, but the pH of gastrointestinal content and urine affects the absorption and excretion of amphetamine, respectively. Amphetamine exerts its behavioral effects by altering the use of monoamines as neuronal signals in the brain, primarily in catecholamine neurons in the reward and executive function pathways of the brain.
Amphetamine has been identified as a potent full agonist of trace amine-associated receptor 1 TAAR1a G s -coupled and G q -coupled G protein-coupled receptor GPCR discovered inwhich is important for regulation of brain monoamines.
The full profile of amphetamine's short-term drug effects in humans is mostly derived through increased cellular communication or neurotransmission of dopamine serotonin norepinephrine epinephrine histamine CART peptides  endogenous opioids   adrenocorticotropic hormone  corticosteroids  and glutamate  which it effects through interactions with CART5-HT1AEAAT3TAAR1VMAT1VMAT2and possibly other biological targets.
Dextroamphetamine is a more potent agonist of TAAR1 than levoamphetamine. In certain brain regions, amphetamine increases the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic cleft. Amphetamine is also a substrate for the presynaptic vesicular monoamine transporterVMAT2. Similar to dopamine, amphetamine dose-dependently increases the level of synaptic norepinephrine, the direct precursor of epinephrine.
Amphetamine exerts analogous, yet less pronounced, effects on serotonin as on dopamine and norepinephrine. Acute amphetamine administration in humans increases endogenous opioid release in several brain structures in the reward system.
In Decemberthe first study assessing the interaction between what is the meaning of grinning and human carbonic anhydrase enzymes was published;  of the eleven carbonic anhydrase enzymes it examined, it found that amphetamine potently activates seven, four of which are highly expressed in the human brainwith low nanomolar through low micromolar activating effects.
The half-lives of amphetamine enantiomers differ and vary with urine pH. The prodrug lisdexamfetamine is not as sensitive to pH as what can cause sudden depression when being absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract;  how to get a press pass for nfl games absorption into wat blood stream, it is converted by red blood cell -associated enzymes to dextroamphetamine via hydrolysis.
The human metagenome i. Similar to most biomolecules and other orally administered xenobiotics i. Amphetamine has a very similar structure and function to the endogenous trace amines, which are naturally occurring neuromodulator molecules produced in the human body and brain.
Amphetamine is a methyl homolog of the mammalian neurotransmitter phenethylamine with the chemical formula C 9 H 13 N. The carbon atom adjacent to the primary amine is a stereogenic centerand amphetamine is composed of a racemic mixture of two enantiomers. The substituted derivatives of amphetamine, or "substituted amphetamines", are a broad range of chemicals that contain amphetamine as a "backbone";    specifically, this chemical class includes derivative compounds that are formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine cah structure with substituents.
Since the first preparation was reported in caude synthetic routes to amphetamine have been developed. This intermediate is then hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid, and subsequently basified, extracted with organic solvent, concentrated, and distilled to yield the free base.
The free base is then dissolved in an organic solvent, sulfuric acid added, and amphetamine precipitates out as the sulfate salt. A number of chiral resolutions have been developed to separate the two whar of amphetamine. In one example, optically pure R phenyl-ethanamine is condensed with phenylacetone to yield a chiral Schiff base. In the key step, this intermediate is reduced by catalytic hydrogenation with a transfer of chirality to the carbon atom alpha to the amino group.
Csn of the benzylic amine bond by hydrogenation yields optically pure dextroamphetamine. A large number of alternative synthetic routes to amphetamine have been developed based on classic organic reactions. In this route, allylbenzene is reacted acetonitrile in sulfuric acid to yield sdden organosulfate which in turn is treated with sodium hydroxide to give amphetamine via an acetamide intermediate.
This synthetic intermediate can be transformed into amphetamine using what can cause sudden depression a Hofmann or Curtius rearrangement method 4. A significant number of amphetamine syntheses feature a reduction of a nitroimineoximeor other nitrogen-containing functional groups. The double bond and nitro group of this intermediate is reduced using either catalytic hydrogenation or by treatment with lithium aluminium hydride depreesion 5.
Amphetamine is frequently measured in urine or blood as part of a drug test for sports, employment, poisoning diagnostics, and forensics. For the assays, a study noted that an enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique EMIT assay for amphetamine and methamphetamine may produce more false positives than liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry.
Amphetamine is still illegally synthesized today in clandestine labs and sold on the black markethow to install sims 2 patches in European countries. As a dspression of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substancesamphetamine became a schedule II controlled substance, as defined in the treaty, in all cwuse parties.
Of those, Evekeo including Evekeo ODT is what is dorsal recumbent position only product containing only racemic drpression as amphetamine sulfateand is therefore the only one whose active moiety can be accurately referred to simply as "amphetamine".
A prodrug form of dextroamphetamine, lisdexamfetamineis also available and is marketed under the brand name Vyvanse. As it is a prodrug, lisdexamfetamine is structurally different from dextroamphetamine, and is inactive until it metabolizes into dextroamphetamine.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about mixtures of levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. For other uses, see Amphetamine disambiguation. US DailyMed : Amphetamine. IUPAC name. DB Y. D Y. Interactive image. NC C Cc1ccccc1. Signaling cascade in the nucleus accumbens that results in amphetamine addiction v t e. Note: colored text contains article links. Nuclear pore. Nuclear membrane.
Plasma membrane. See also: Stimulant psychosis. Pharmacodynamics of amphetamine in a dopamine neuron v t e. Metabolic pathways of amphetamine in humans [sources 16]. Benzoic acid.
What is Postpartum Depression?
Introducing a pacifier too soon can lead to nipple confusion and cause your baby to prefer the pacifier's nipple over your own. Don't force your baby to take the pacifier if they don't want it. May 03, · Adjusting to this new life after welcoming a newborn can cause most parents to feel overwhelmed and worried for the first two or so weeks after childbirth. While there is no one specific cause of postpartum blues, there are factors that can contribute to its potential development.
Postpartum blues is a mild and short-term mood disorder that results after pregnancy. It is one of the most common types of postpartum depression.
As a new parent, you will go through periods of happiness, joy, sadness and frustration. Moodiness and sadness are extremely characteristic of the baby blues.
The more common than many women and their families know. Postpartum blues is a temporary and short-term mental and emotional health condition that can set in immediately after giving birth. It is not considered by medical health professionals to be a serious or severe condition, but a normal response to changing hormone levels, exhaustion and the life-changing event of having a new baby.
Postpartum blues is thought to affect anywhere from 70 to 80 percent of women who have given birth. It can affect women after any pregnancy, not just the first one. It is so prevalent that it is thought by many medical health professionals to simply be a normal part of the postpartum experience.
In fact, it is so common that men can also experience postpartum blues. People from all backgrounds, races, ethnicities, cultures and socioeconomic levels have reported feeling the baby blues. Whether someone in your family has experienced it or not, you may experience the postpartum blues if you or your spouse recently had a baby. Most experts believe postpartum blues are caused by a sudden drop in hormone levels that women experience after birth.
During pregnancy, women have hormone levels at 20 to 30 times greater than when not pregnant. The physical exertion of childbirth also creates a chemical high in the brain. Hormonal changes and physical exhaustion from childbirth are not the only factors that cause postpartum blues. Having a new baby presents a new set of responsibilities and changes in life routines.
Adjusting to this new life after welcoming a newborn can cause most parents to feel overwhelmed and worried for the first two or so weeks after childbirth. While there is no one specific cause of postpartum blues, there are factors that can contribute to its potential development. Women who have none of these risk factors can still develop postpartum blues. Because it is such a versatile condition, the real cause of its development in each individual may never be fully understood.
Most often, people who experience the baby blues describe it as being an emotional roller coaster. Distinct periods of sadness are interspersed with feelings of joy and happiness in caring for the new baby.
Many new mothers also experience feelings of reaching an anti-climactic state. Pregnancy itself is a long and thrilling journey that creates lots of anticipation.
The following are the most commonly reported postpartum blues symptoms that mothers and fathers may experience:. Postpartum blues symptoms typically start within the first 48 to 72 hours after delivering a baby. These symptoms generally last about two weeks, with symptoms tending to peak shortly after the first week. It is important to understand that these are the limitations of postpartum blues symptoms. If you are experiencing any other more severe and chronic symptoms, then you may be struggling with postpartum depression or a more serious postpartum condition.
If symptoms persist or worsen after 14 days, then it is vital that you inform your physician or a mental health professional immediately. The best treatment for postpartum blues is plenty of rest combined with regular exercise, meals and water. Suffering in silence is not healthy for yourself or your family. You can cope much better with these symptoms by addressing them and communicating openly about them with your family. Remember that the feelings you are experiencing are common and valid.
If you feel any shame or guilt, it is important to discuss this with your partner so you can begin to heal and recover. Provided you are taking care of yourself within the weeks following childbirth, you will find that your baby blues symptoms will disappear as quickly as they came on.
Board-Certified in , she is now retired from clinical practice after a long and successful career. Currently, she is the Founder and Chief Medical Officer of a Medical Device Company that is introducing a patented products to treat vaginal microbial infections without the need for drugs. Jenna Carberg was diagnosed with postpartum depression following the birth of her daughter in It was a healthy birth but in following days, Jenna's mood changed quickly.
Doctors suggested that it might be the "baby blues", but her husband Chris suggested she seek a second opinion. Jenna was diagnosed with postpartum depression and began a journey that lasted 9 long months with significant ups and downs. Jenna's mental health care and her experiences became a passion for her to share with the world.
She and her husband Chris founded PostpartumDepression. Baby Blues: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment. The baby blues. What are Postpartum Blues? About the Postpartum Blues Postpartum blues is a temporary and short-term mental and emotional health condition that can set in immediately after giving birth. Who Does Postpartum Blues Affect? Postpartum Blues Causes and Risk Factors Most experts believe postpartum blues are caused by a sudden drop in hormone levels that women experience after birth.
Postpartum Blues Symptoms Most often, people who experience the baby blues describe it as being an emotional roller coaster. The following are the most commonly reported postpartum blues symptoms that mothers and fathers may experience: Mood swings Irritability Sadness Bursting into tears Feeling on edge or overly sensitive Physical and mental exhaustion Anxiety and worry Feeling empty or lonely Feeling stressed or overwhelmed Confusion about your emotions Not being able to cope Difficulty sleeping or trouble falling asleep Postpartum blues symptoms typically start within the first 48 to 72 hours after delivering a baby.
Postpartum Blues Treatment The best treatment for postpartum blues is plenty of rest combined with regular exercise, meals and water. Reviewed by: Kimberly Langdon M. Medical Editor. Written by: Jenna Carberg. Page navigation Previous Anxiety Disorder. Next OCD.
<- What are some vegetables high in protein - Minecraft videos how to build a castle->