The Anatomy of the Stapes Bone
Jan 22, · There are three bones located in the middle ear: the incus, the malleus and the stapes. Collectively, all three bones comprise the ossicles. Sound waves provoke vibration in these . Feb 25, · Also known as the anvil, the incus is one of the small bones found in the middle ear. It works in conjunction with two other small bones, the malleus and the stapes, to relay sound from the middle ear to the inner ear. This tiny bone is only found in mammals. The incus is positioned between the malleus and the stapes.
Together they form a short chain that crosses the middle ear and transmits vibrations caused by sound waves from the eardrum membrane to the liquid of the inner ear.
The malleus resembles a club more than a…. The malleus is attached to and partly embedded in the fibrous layer of the inner surface of the tympanic membrane.
It connects to the incus, which connects in…. The malleus and incus are suspended by small elastic ligaments and are finely balanced, with their masses evenly distributed above and below their common axis of rotation. The head of the malleus and the body of the incus are tightly bound together, with the result that they move…. The malleus more closely resembles a club than a hammer, and the incus looks more like a premolar tooth with uneven roots than an anvil.
These bones are suspended by ligaments, which leave the chain free to vibrate in…. Directory References. Videos Images. Incus anatomy. Share Share. Facebook Twitter. In human hearing, sound waves enter the outer ear and what is needed for p90x through the external auditory canal.
When the waves reach the tympanic membrane, they cause the membrane and the attached chain of auditory ossicles to vibrate. The motion of the stapes against the oval window sets up waves in the fluids of the cochlea, causing the basilar membrane to vibrate.
This stimulates the sensory cells of the organ of Corti, atop the basilar membrane, to send nerve impulses to the brain. The auditory ossicles of the middle ear and the structures surrounding them.
the malleus, or hammer, the incus, or anvil, and the stapes, or stirrup. Together they form a short chain that crosses the middle ear and transmits vibrations caused by sound waves from the eardrum membrane to the liquid of the inner ear. The malleus resembles a club more than a. The auditory ossicles—the malleus, incus, and stapes—are small movable bones that extend like a chain from the tympanic membrane and functionally connect the tympanic membrane with the vestibular (oval) window (see Figure ). The ossicles consist of . The incus forms a lever with the malleus, thereby amplifying incoming sound and aiding in the impedance-matching function of the middle ear.
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The malleus functions with the other bones to transmit vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. Conditions that affect the malleus often impact the ability to hear. The malleus is the largest and the outermost of the bones, which are part of the auditory system.
Together, the three bones make up an area no larger than the seed of an orange. The auditory ossicles are suspended in the middle ear by ligaments. The malleus is shaped like a hammer, thus its Latin name. It sits in the middle ear between the incus and the eardrum. The parts of the malleus include the head, neck, and handle. A joint holds the head of the malleus and the incus together. Malformations of the ossicles include hypoplasia under-development or displacement.
Congenital aural atresia is a birth defect that results from a failure of the external auditory canal to fully develop. It may be associated with other congenital anomalies and is one of the most difficult to correct. The bones work together to transmit sound waves from the outer ear to the inner ear.
They do this by taking the vibrational pressure from the eardrum to the malleus, then the incus, then the stapes, and finally to the cochlea. The bones also serve a protective function. When exposed to loud noises, the muscles of the middle ear contract, reducing the ability of the eardrum to vibrate. This, in turn, reduces the movement of the malleus and the other two ossicles and limits the impact of the noise. Due to the vital role the malleus plays in transmitting sound, conditions of the malleus often affect hearing.
Otosclerosis is a type of hearing loss resulting from abnormal bone growth in one or more of the ossicles. When this happens, the bones can become stuck together, limiting their ability to move and thereby preventing proper hearing.
Hearing loss is the primary symptom of otosclerosis, which usually comes on gradually. Tinnitus and dizziness can also occur. If your doctor suspects that you have otosclerosis, they may order an audiogram and tympanogram to determine your hearing sensitivity. A computed tomography CT scan to view the ossicle bones may confirm the diagnosis. Dislocation of the bone can occur following trauma. Known as ossicular chain dislocation, the condition can occur from a blow to the head, a loud blast, injury from an instrument used in the ear canal, and injury from barometric or water pressure.
Symptoms of dislocation include hearing loss, facial paralysis, tinnitus, and vertigo. Dislocation of the ossicle bones is usually diagnosed by a CT scan. Tympanometry and audiography can help determine the extent of hearing loss. Cholesteatoma is a noncancerous abnormal skin growth in the middle ear. If it gets too large, it can damage the ossicles.
Symptoms include hearing loss, ear pressure or pain, vertigo, drainage from the ear, and facial paralysis. Diagnosis of cholesteatoma involves examining the ear with an otoscope.
Your doctor may also order a CT scan in order to see the situation more clearly. Treatment for conditions affecting the malleus often, but not always, involves surgery. Treatment is provided by an otolaryngologist, a doctor that specializes in conditions of the ear, nose, and throat.
Surgery to correct congenital aural atresia is one of the more challenging treatments for conditions affecting the malleus. The goal of the surgery is to restore hearing without the need for a hearing aid. The surgery usually happens when a child is 6 or 7 years old. Bone conduction devices are a type of hearing aid that transmits sound vibrations through the bones in the head. They are a non-surgical treatment option for atresia.
They can be surgically implanted or used with a magnet. Recent technical advances have improved these devices and studies have shown them to provide good hearing outcomes. In order to be most successful, they need to be placed as early as possible. Treatment for otosclerosis can be supportive treating symptoms or curative.
Supportive treatments include hearing aids and vitamin and mineral supplements. Curative treatments involve surgery. Stapedectomy involves removing the damaged bone usually the stapes and replacing it with a synthetic implant. Repair of ossicular chain dislocation most often involves surgery, called ossciculoplasty. The surgery involves reconstructing the ossicular chain with the goal of improving hearing. Cholesteatoma does not go away on its own and is treated by surgical removal.
Often, prior to surgery, antibiotics and ear drops are prescribed to control infection and reduce swelling. Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life.
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. Campbell E, Tan NC. Ossicular-chain dislocation. Updated August 4, Current treatments for congenital aural atresia. J Audiol Otol. Your Privacy Rights. To change or withdraw your consent choices for VerywellHealth.
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Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Related Articles. Incus: Anatomy, Function, and Treatment. A Quick Overview of the Anatomy of the Ossicles. Anatomy of the Stapes. Anatomy of the Middle Ear. Learn the Exact Function of the Auditory Ossicles. Anatomy of the Eardrum. Anatomy and Function of the Cochlea. The Anatomy of the Ear. Hearing Loss Related to Otosclerosis.
Overview of Low-Frequency Hearing Loss. How Your Hearing Works.
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